火辣直播app下载免费

After Extensive Data Gathering and Analysis—Plus a Worldwide Media Frenzy—NASA’s Famed Twins Study has Begun to Yield Results

春水堂app污下载安装

It has been called the most comprehensive analysis of individual human beings ever conducted in scientific history. In March 2015, astronaut Scott Kelly rode a Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station and proceeded to spend 340 days in orbit as part of an in-depth study of the long-term effects of space travel on the human body. As rare and valuable as that effort was—representing the longest-ever space mission for a NASA astronaut—it was all the more remarkable thanks to a tantalizing offer from Kelly’s identical twin brother: Mark Kelly, himself a retired astronaut. Since Mark was staying on terra firma, he volunteered to serve as an experimental control, allowing scientists to compare two genetically identical men—one on Earth, the other in zero gravity some 220 miles above it, traveling at almost five miles per second.

荔枝app污下载安装

The cover of Science featuring the Twins Study.

During Scott’s time on the space station (as well as six months before and after his mission), the brothers underwent physical and cognitive testing and contributed numerous blood, urine, saliva and fecal samples for analysis. Dubbed the NASA Twins Study, the effort comprised 10 interconnected research projects—on such topics as cognition, cardiovascular health, genomic changes, immune response, and the composition of gut, skin and oral bacteria—funded by a total of $1.5 million in agency grants and involving dozens of investigators around the country and abroad.

One of those projects, which focused on how Scott’s environment affected how his genes were expressed and regulated, was led by Weill Cornell Medicine’s Dr. Chris Mason—and along with the nine others, it would make headlines around the world. In April, the Twins Study landed on the cover of the journal Science, which featured a 20-page article summing up the results—the first publication of what’s expected to be many, as researchers continue to parse a mother lode of data. “Overall, the Twins Study is a tour de force about how the body’s adaptability extends to outer space,” says Dr. Mason, the WorldQuant Foundation Research Scholar in physiology and biophysics and an associate professor of neuroscience, of physiology and biophysics, and of computational genomics in computational biomedicine. “The vast majority of changes we saw returned to normal—but about 8 or 9% remained. So it also shows that the body was still to some degree adapting to terrestrial life, even six months after Scott Kelly returned to Earth.”

Among the Mason Lab’s findings were that thousands of genes became active in Scott while remaining dormant in Mark—an effect that became more marked the longer Scott stayed in space. Those genes included ones that play a role in repairing damaged DNA—which may reflect the fact that while in space, Scott was exposed to nearly 50 times as much radiation as his brother was on Earth. Also active were genes related to inflammation, which could be due to the inherent stresses of space travel on the human body; these include the effects of being in zero gravity, such as fluid shifts and bone loss. For Dr. Francine Garrett-Bakelman, who was the first author on the Science paper, the findings made sense. “I’m a physician-scientist, and as a physician, I thought, ‘Yes, an astronaut is under significant stress,’” says Dr. Garrett-Bakelman, who completed her research and medical postgraduate training at Weill Cornell Medicine (where she was an instructor and an assistant attending physician at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center while working in Dr. Mason’s lab and that of Dr. Ari Melnick, the Gebroe Family Professor of Hematology/Oncology).  She is now an assistant professor of medicine and of biochemistry and molecular genetics at the University of Virginia School of Medicine, as well as an adjunct assistant professor of medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine. “He gets launched into space, spends a year in a foreign environment, then comes down to Earth subjected to a tremendous amount of g-forces. It tells us that the human body is resilient and responding normally to a stressful situation.”

西瓜直播成版人

MIRROR IMAGES: Twins Mark (left) and Scott Kelly. Opposite page: Scott on a spacewalk—his third—in December 2015. Credit: Robert Markowitz/ NASA / Johnson Space Center

As Dr. Mason notes, a particularly striking finding was the extent to which Scott’s immune system was on high alert once he went to space: every type of immune cell the researchers measured was active at levels that are practically unheard of. And in fact, Dr. Mason says, the response was even more dramatic when Scott came home. “In his memoir, he says that when he landed back on Earth he didn’t feel well—and we could see why very clearly, in his blood work and gene expression data,” says Dr. Mason, who is also a cofounder, equity stakeholder and consultant for Onegevity Health, a company that provides a comprehensive molecular portrait and customized recommendations for an individual’s health based on integrated analysis of longitudinal blood, genetics and microbiome profiles. “There were all these markers for inflammation and for immune cells kicking into high gear. His body was basically having this moment of, ‘Wow, I’m back in gravity’—these markers in the bloodstream were sometimes 4,000% higher than normal. So we could see that while going to space was hard on the body, returning to gravity was, in some ways, even harder.”

One of the Twins Study’s most surprising discoveries related to telomeres, sections of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes. Normally, as people get older their telomeres get shorter—and researchers had expected to see that happen in space, possibly even faster due to stress and radiation exposure. But in fact—as an investigator at Colorado State University discovered and the Dr. Mason Lab confirmed with new DNA sequencing and analysis methods—Scott’s telomeres got longer, though they reverted to normal after he came home. Why? Researchers don’t yet know. “We need to do a lot more science on this,” says Dr. Cem Meydan, a research associate in the Dr. Mason Lab and a co-first author on the Science paper. “We need to find out why this is happening, and whether we can prevent it or study it for other health-related purposes, such as to fight cancer or aging.”

Dr. Mason and his colleagues emphasize that when it comes to understanding how the human body reacts to being in space, the Twins Study had an obvious and inherent limitation: it had only one subject who actually went aloft. Furthermore, says Dr. Garrett-Bakelman, “this was a single study of one white male; what happens in women, or in people from other racial or cultural backgrounds, we have no idea. Trying to infer anything at all is very difficult without having additional subjects’ data to look at.” And of course, given that the Kelly brothers were NASA’s first (and so far, only) identical twin astronauts, in many ways the study was a one-of-a-kind opportunity. “As a geneticist, I wish every person was a twin or a triplet so we could study them,” Dr. Mason says with a laugh. “It’s unclear if or when this will happen again. It’s going to be hard to match this study anytime soon.” Still, when it comes to figuring out whether humans could survive a mission to Mars or beyond, he and his colleagues call the study’s findings highly encouraging. “Obviously it’s a sample size of one, so it’s hard to make generalized statements—but if we saw similar results in multiple people, I think it bodes well for long-term space travel,” Dr. Meydan says. “Most of the changes we saw can potentially be targeted; in the next five or 10 years, we could develop drugs, interventions or other technology such as shielding for radiation or clothing for reversing fluid shifts in the body.”

Dr. Mason also points out that the Twins Study could have benefits beyond the findings themselves; some of the procedures and analytic techniques its researchers developed could be a boon to terrestrial medicine. “It forced us to be nimble with limited numbers of cells and to sequence really quickly,” he says, noting that their methods could inform rapid diagnosis of infectious pathogens or genetic analysis of a cancer patient’s tumor. Working with some of the same collaborators as in the Twins Study, Dr. Mason’s team also helped pioneer the first-ever DNA sequencing experiments on the International Space Station. Plus, Dr. Garrett-Bakelman says, the study stands as a prime example of how broad scientific questions can be answered through large-scale collaboration. “If you think about it, there were over 80 authors on the Science paper—from multiple institutions, locations and countries—in addition to all the support staff at NASA that helped us do this,” she says. “It was truly a challenging project to complete, and it wouldn’t have been possible without that entire team. That’s how these projects should be done: you bring in expertise from many different areas, think outside the box and piece things together that you would have never thought about unless you were with all those people in the same room.”

With the overarching Science paper out, the Mason Lab has another half dozen publications in progress—continuing to explore what research associate and co-author Daniela Bezdan calls “the most comprehensive and integrated molecular view to date of how a human responds to spaceflight.” For Bezdan and many of her colleagues, just working on a space-related project was a wish come true. The first time she got an e-mail from NASA, she was so excited that she took a screenshot of the header; now, every 10th message in her in-box is from the agency. “We can contribute to making space exploration possible, which could be important for the survival of the human species; it’s something bigger than ourselves,” Bezdan says. “When I think of space travel, I think of three compartments: we are now describing what happens in space; the next step is to understand it—and the third step is to use it for our advantage.”

In Scott Kelly’s 2017 memoir—entitled “Endurance: A Year in Space, a Lifetime of Discovery”—he describes his record-setting tenure on the space station, the longest-duration mission for a NASA astronaut. Toward the end of the book, he contemplates his contribution to the Twins Study, noting that he expects to continue to be a test subject for the rest of his life. “Science is a slow-moving process,” he writes, “and it may be years before any great understanding or breakthrough is reached from the data. Sometimes the questions science asks are answered by other questions. This doesn’t particularly bother me—I will leave the science up to the scientists. For me, it’s worth it to have contributed to advancing human knowledge, even if it’s only a step on a much longer journey.”

This story first appeared in Weill Cornell Medicine, Summer 2019

Weill Cornell Medicine
Office of External Affairs
1300 York Avenue
Box 314
New York, NY 10065 Phone: (646) 962-9476

香蕉app污下载安装 爱爱视频成版人 茄子直播app下载免费 咪哒成版人 佳丽直播视频app下载免费 光棍影院app污下载安装 蜜橙视频成版人 水晶直播app下载免费 美梦视频成版人 四虎app下载免费 avgo成版人 夜狼直播app下载免费 七秒鱼app污下载安装 9uuapp污下载安装 棉花糖直播成版人 橘子视频成版人 iAVBOBOapp下载免费 梦幻直播app下载免费 小蝌蚪成版人 污软件成版人 水蜜桃成版人 黄瓜视频app下载免费 火辣直播成版人 主播大秀app污下载安装 health2app下载免费 丝瓜视频污成版人 四虎app下载免费 水仙直播app污下载安装 夜狼直播app污下载安装 猛虎视频app污下载安装 柚子直播app下载免费 柠檬直播成版人 小宝贝直播app污下载安装 香草视频app污下载安装 桃花app污下载安装 小草视频app污下载安装 红楼直播成版人 快喵app污下载安装 水晶直播app污下载安装 恋人直播app下载免费 享受直播app下载免费 宅男之家成版人 ML聚合app下载免费 草莓app下载免费 猫咪视频成版人 夜遇直播号app下载免费 米老鼠直播app污下载安装 樱花app污下载安装 A头条成版人 尤蜜视频成版人 比心成版人 污直播app下载免费 桃花直播app下载免费 直播盒子成版人 彩色直播app下载免费 萝卜视频成版人 硬汉视频app下载免费 花心视频成版人 台湾swagapp下载免费 AVnight成版人 音色短视频app下载免费 抖阴视频app污下载安装 后宫app污下载安装 花椒直播成版人 萝卜视频app下载免费 樱桃直播app污下载安装 探探直播app下载免费 91视频成版人 9uuapp下载免费 和欢视频成版人 黄鱼视频app污下载安装 芭乐视频成版人 午夜直播成版人 成人快手成版人 麻豆传媒视频app污下载安装 享爱app下载免费 快播破解app污下载安装 快播破解成版人 主播福利app下载免费 啪嗒视频app下载免费 直播盒子成版人 灭火卫视app下载免费 麻豆传媒直播app下载免费 米老鼠直播app下载免费 丝瓜成版人 黄瓜视频人成版人 嘿嘿连载app污下载安装 性福宝app污下载安装 柚子直播app下载免费 橙子视频成版人 蜜柚直播app下载免费 蜜橙视频成版人 麻豆传媒直播app污下载安装 夜狼直播app下载免费 套路直播app下载免费 月亮直播成版人 小草视频app污下载安装 ML聚合成版人 夏娃直播app下载免费 盘她s直播app污下载安装 小公主直播app污下载安装 柠檬视频app下载免费 月夜直播app下载免费 月光直播app污下载安装 秀儿直播app下载免费 兔子直播app下载免费 金屋藏娇直播间成版人 红玫瑰直播app下载免费 秀色小抖音app污下载安装 小蝌蚪视频成版人 大番号app污下载安装 荔枝成版人 性直播app污下载安装 繁花直播成版人 盘她s直播成版人 么么直播成版人 成版人短视频成版人 一对一直播app污下载安装 蜜柚直播成版人 泡芙视频app污下载安装 兔子直播app下载免费 AVBOBOapp下载免费 皮卡丘直播app污下载安装 冈本成版人 香蕉app污下载安装 彩云直播app下载免费 丝瓜视频app污下载安装 和欢视频app污下载安装 探探直播成版人 九尾狐直播成版人 夏娃直播成版人 午夜神器成版人 柠檬视频app下载免费 柠檬视频app污下载安装 啪嗒视频成版人 ML聚合直播app下载免费 比心成版人 尤蜜成版人 宅男之家成版人 花狐狸直播app下载免费 f2富二代成版人 棉花糖直播成版人 快猫短视频app污下载安装 ML聚合app下载免费 秀儿直播app下载免费 云上花直播app污下载安装 泡芙短视频app污下载安装 美梦视频app下载免费 盘她s直播app污下载安装 斗艳直播app下载免费 成版人抖音富二代app污下载安装 樱花app污下载安装 考拉直播app下载免费 水仙直播成版人 尤蜜视频成版人 豌豆直播app污下载安装 蜜蜂视频app污下载安装 米老鼠直播app下载免费 富二代成版人 大秀直播成版人 内裤直播成版人 草榴短视频app下载免费 快猫短视频app下载免费 七仙女直播成版人 火辣直播app下载免费 IAVBOBO成版人 兔子直播成版人 猫咪视频app下载免费 陌秀直播app下载免费 泡芙视频app下载免费 花友直播成版人 草莓成版人 午夜直播app污下载安装 暗夜直播app下载免费 粉色app下载免费 蓝颜成版人 最污直播app污下载安装 米老鼠直播app下载免费 木瓜视频app下载免费 爱爱视频成版人 恋夜秀场成版人 千层浪视频app下载免费 丝瓜app污下载安装 十里桃花直播app下载免费 s8视频app下载免费 卖肉直播app下载免费 暗夜直播app污下载安装 向日葵app下载免费 趣播成版人 IAVBOBOapp下载免费 樱花视频app污下载安装 柚子直播app下载免费 心上人直播app污下载安装 遇见直播app污下载安装 快狐app污下载安装 红杏视频app下载免费 小姐姐直播app污下载安装 火爆社区app下载免费 欢喜视频app污下载安装 欢喜视频成版人 麻豆传媒成版人 萝卜视频app下载免费 铁牛app污下载安装 荔枝视频app污下载安装 成版人音色短视频成版人 芭乐视频app下载免费 免费黃色直播app污下载安装 蜜橙视频app下载免费 大象视频app下载免费 和欢视频成版人 蜜蜂视频app污下载安装 秀色小抖音app下载免费 夏娃直播成版人 富二代f2抖音app污下载安装 合欢视频app污下载安装 小v视频app下载免费 遇见直播app污下载安装 斗艳直播成版人 樱花app下载免费 金鱼直播app下载免费 成版人抖音app下载免费 花心直播成版人 九尾狐视频app污下载安装 香草视频app下载免费 豆奶视频app下载免费 繁花直播app下载免费 夏娃直播app下载免费 91直播app下载免费 性直播成版人 探花直播app下载免费 d2天堂成版人 小小影视app污下载安装 成版人音色短视频成版人 小奶猫app下载免费 云雨直播app污下载安装 含羞草实验研究所成版人 盘她成版人 男人本色西瓜视频app污下载安装 骚虎直播app污下载安装 彩色直播成版人 黄色直播软件app下载免费 花心视频app下载免费 ML聚合app污下载安装 火爆社区app下载免费 红楼直播app下载免费 蜜蜂视频app下载免费 佳丽直播app下载免费 佳丽直播视频app污下载安装 咪咪直播成版人 A头条成版人 夜魅直播app下载免费 桃花app下载免费 小草视频成版人 bobo直播app下载免费 久草视频成版人 AVnightapp下载免费 黄页荔枝app下载免费 火爆社区成版人 富二代f2抖音app污下载安装 和欢视频成版人 豆奶app下载免费 小猪视频成版人 佳丽直播视频成版人 花友直播app污下载安装 色秀直播成版人 花心app污下载安装 牛牛视频成版人 avgo成版人 富二代app下载免费 花心视频app下载免费 AVnight成版人 硬汉视频app下载免费 烟花巷直播成版人 比心直播成版人 秀色直播app下载免费 梦鹿直播app下载免费 盘他直播成版人 水蜜桃app污下载安装 香草视频成版人 梦幻直播app下载免费 含羞草实验研究所成版人 梦露直播app污下载安装 猛虎视频app下载免费 光棍影院app下载免费 lutube成版人 初恋视频app污下载安装 心上人直播成版人 BB直播app下载免费 富二代成版人 蚪音成版人 污直播app下载免费 葫芦娃app下载免费 麻豆视频成版人 花姿直播app下载免费 雨云直播成版人 AVnightapp污下载安装 欢喜视频app污下载安装 水晶直播成版人 黄页荔枝app污下载安装 快狐app污下载安装 享爱app下载免费 初恋直播app污下载安装 猫咪软件成版人 小宝贝直播app下载免费 橘子视频app下载免费 薰衣草直播app污下载安装 成版人音色短视频app污下载安装 芭乐视频成版人 蚪音app下载免费 趣播app下载免费 ML聚合成版人 秀色小抖音app下载免费 BB直播成版人 含羞草app下载免费 小天仙直播app污下载安装 小蝌蚪视频app污下载安装 大小姐直播成版人 杏吧直播成版人 薰衣草直播成版人 夏娃直播成版人 西瓜直播成版人 食色短视频app下载免费 妖妖直播app下载免费 大西瓜视频app下载免费 污软件app污下载安装 佳丽直播app下载免费 初恋视频app下载免费 月亮直播app污下载安装 蜜桃app下载免费 草榴短视频app下载免费 梦幻直播app下载免费 菠萝蜜app下载免费 d2天堂app下载免费 老王视频app污下载安装 污直播成版人 花仙子直播成版人 花姬直播app污下载安装 豆奶app污下载安装 卡哇伊成版人 九尾狐直播成版人 性直播成版人 遇见直播app污下载安装 青草视频成版人 荔枝视频成版人 仙人掌成版人 污软件app下载免费 青青草app下载免费 灭火卫视app下载免费 猛虎直播app下载免费 初恋视频成版人 樱桃视频app下载免费 榴莲视频app下载免费 梦幻直播app下载免费 考拉直播app污下载安装 恋人直播app下载免费 樱花直播app下载免费 黄瓜app下载免费 小草莓app下载免费 水果视频成版人 彩色直播成版人 冈本视频成版人 享受直播app下载免费 盘她直播成版人 初恋直播成版人 樱花直播app下载免费 恋夜秀场app下载免费 污直播app污下载安装 快猫短视频app下载免费 烟花巷直播成版人 云雨直播成版人 萝卜视频app下载免费 千层浪app下载免费 美梦视频app下载免费 Huluwa成版人 逗趣直播app污下载安装 望月app污下载安装 红玫瑰直播app污下载安装 云雨直播成版人 久草成版人 烟花巷app下载免费 花仙子直播app下载免费 水晶直播app下载免费 花姿直播成版人 黄页荔枝成版人 米老鼠直播成版人 尤蜜视频app下载免费 黄瓜视频人成版人 黄鱼视频app下载免费 彩色直播app下载免费 水晶直播app污下载安装 红杏视频app下载免费 成版人短视频成版人 九尾狐视频成版人 麻豆传媒映画app下载免费 蚪音app污下载安装 Huluwa成版人 主播福利app污下载安装 花仙子直播成版人 考拉直播app下载免费 九尾狐直播成版人 小狐仙成版人 红高粱直播成版人 富二代f2抖音app下载免费 九尾狐直播app下载免费 成版人抖音富二代app下载免费 快猫视频app下载免费 趣播app污下载安装 香蕉视频app下载免费 MM直播成版人 水晶直播成版人 小小影视app下载免费 丝瓜视频污app下载免费 名优馆app下载免费 红楼直播成版人 成版人茄子视频app下载免费 铁牛视频app下载免费 妖妖直播app污下载安装 黄色直播软件app下载免费 米老鼠直播app污下载安装 逗趣直播成版人 千层浪视频app下载免费 泡芙短视频app下载免费 性直播app污下载安装 月夜直播app污下载安装 主播大秀成版人 火爆社区app下载免费 丝瓜视频污成版人 依恋直播app下载免费 大番号app下载免费 鲍鱼视频app污下载安装 后宫视频app污下载安装 富二代app污下载安装 菠萝蜜app污下载安装 Kitty直播app下载免费 红颜app下载免费 本色视频app污下载安装 佳丽直播成版人 草榴直播app污下载安装 花姿成版人 套路直播app下载免费 雨燕直播app下载免费 可乐视频app下载免费 黄瓜直播app下载免费 小草莓app污下载安装 红高粱直播app下载免费 梦幻直播app下载免费 花姬app下载免费 向日葵视频app污下载安装 黄色直播软件成版人 榴莲视频成版人 成人直播app污下载安装 红娘直播app污下载安装 望月直播app下载免费 午夜直播间成版人 梦幻直播app污下载安装 樱花直播app下载免费 花心社区app下载免费 秋葵视频app污下载安装 一对一直播app污下载安装 草榴短视频app污下载安装 大象视频成版人 享爱直播app下载免费 Huluwa成版人 f2富二代app下载免费 快猫app污下载安装 7秒鱼直播成版人 秋葵视频app污下载安装 本色视频app污下载安装 卡哇伊直播app污下载安装 小蝌蚪app污下载安装 香蕉视频app下载免费 泡芙视频成版人 小狐仙app下载免费 十里桃花直播app下载免费 水晶直播成版人 男人本色西瓜视频app下载免费 后宫视频成版人 小草视频app下载免费 小米粒直播app下载免费 91视频成版人 MM直播app下载免费 暗夜直播app下载免费 花姿成版人 年华直播app下载免费 花椒直播app污下载安装